Bon Lin Middle School

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Instructor
Renee Farrell
Department
Science

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Article - Atomic Values

How many protons, electrons and neutrons are in an atom of krypton, carbon, oxygen, neon, silver, gold, etc...? To find the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in an atom, just follow these easy steps:

Step 1 - Gather Information

The first thing you will need to do is find some information about your element. Go to the Periodic Table of Elements and click on your element. If it makes things easier, you can select your element from an alphabetical listing.

Use the Table of Elements to find your element's atomic number and atomic weight. The atomic number is the number located in the upper left corner and the atomic weight is the number located on the bottom, as in this example for krypton:

Step 2 - The Number of Protons is...

The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom of an element. In our example, krypton's atomic number is 36. This tells us that an atom of krypton has 36 protons in its nucleus.

The interesting thing here is that every atom of krypton contains 36 protons. If an atom doesn't have 36 protons, it can't be an atom of krypton. Adding or removing protons from the nucleus of an atom creates a different element. For example, removing one proton from an atom of krypton creates an atom of bromine.

Step 3 - The Number of Electrons is...

By definition, atoms have no overall electrical charge. That means that there must be a balance between the positively charged protons and the negatively charged electrons. Atoms must have equal numbers of protons and electrons. In our example, an atom of krypton must contain 36 electrons since it contains 36 protons.

Electrons are arranged around atoms in a special way. If you need to know how the electrons are arranged around an atom, take a look at the 'How do I read an electron configuration table?' page.

An atom can gain or lose electrons, becoming what is known as an ion. An ion is nothing more than an electrically charged atom. Adding or removing electrons from an atom does not change which element it is, just its net charge.

For example, removing an electron from an atom of krypton forms a krypton ion, which is usually written as Kr+. The plus sign means that this is a positively charged ion. It is positively charged because a negatively charged electron was removed from the atom. The 35 remaining electrons were outnumbered by the 36 positively charged protons, resulting in a charge of +1.

Step 4 - The Number of Neutrons is...

The atomic weight is basically a measurement of the total number of particles in an atom's nucleus. In reality, it isn't that clean cut. The atomic weight is actually a weighted average of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element relative to the mass of carbon-12. Didn't understand that? Doesn't matter. All you really need to find is something called the mass number. Unfortunately, the mass number isn't listed on the Table of Elements. Happily, to find the mass number, all you need to do is round the atomic weight to the nearest whole number. In our example, krypton's mass number is 84 since its atomic weight, 83.80, rounds up to 84.

The mass number is a count of the number of particles in an atom's nucleus. Remember that the nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. So, if we want, we can write:

Mass Number = (Number of Protons) + (Number of Neutrons)

For krypton, this equation becomes:

84 = (Number of Protons) + (Number of Neutrons)

If we only knew how many protons krypton has, we could figure out how many neutrons it has. Wait a minute... We do know how many protons krypton has! We did that back in Step 2! The atomic number (36) is the number of protons in krypton. Putting this into the equation, we get:

84 = 36 + (Number of Neutrons)

What number added to 36 makes 84? Hopefully, you said 48. That is the number of neutrons in an atom of krypton.

The interesting thing here is that adding or removing neutrons from an atom does not create a different element. Rather, it creates a heavier or lighter version of that element. These different versions are called isotopes and most elements are actually a mixture of different isotopes.

If you could grab atoms of krypton and count the number of neutrons each one had, you would find that most would have 48, others would have 47, some would have 50, some others would have 46, a few would have 44 and a very few would have 42. You would count different numbers of neutrons because krypton is a mixture of six isotopes.

In Summary...For any element:

Number of Protons = Atomic Number

Number of Electrons = Number of Protons = Atomic Number

Number of Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number

http://education.jlab.org/qa/pen_number.html

Q3W5 (Feb 5-9) & Q3W6 (Feb 12-16)

February is a busy month for 8th graders as they will begin filling out the information and enrollment for high school.  The Academy visits this month too, so be one the look out for lots of information coming home. Interims will be sent home on Tuesday, please make sure to ask your sweet for them. Here is a look at the next two weeks.

Monday (2/5): Review portions of the mid-term
Tuesday (2/6): Periodic Table- Here we come!
Wednesday (2/7): Close Read on the Periodic Table
Thursday (2/8): Begin coloring/labeling our periodic table TC
Friday (2/9): Periodic Table basics

Monday (2/12): Using the Periodic Table as a cheat sheet
Tuesday (2/13): Practice with the periodic table
Wednesday (2/14): Periodic Table TC (coloring)
Thursday (2/15): Periodic table TC (# of protons, neutrons, and electrons)
Friday (2/16): NO SCHOOL for students

0807.9.9 Use the periodic table to determine the properties of an element.
--> Identify the atomic number, atomic mass, number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element using the periodic table.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Determine the atomic number, atomic mass, number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of any given element using the periodic table.
2.  Explain how the periodic table is organized, and how elements in the same family have similar characteristics.
3. Draw the Lewis Electron and Bohr's models for the first twenty elements.

4. List the valence electrons, electron clouds, family, reactivity, and whether an element is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid with its accompanying characteristics using the periodic table.

Schedule of Events
February 5th, 6th, 7th
• Students will receive course selection cards, four-year plans, and other
registration information during their math guidance class.
• Course selection cards and four-year plans must be signed and returned.
February 13th
all that our students will be able to get involved in next year.
February 15th
• Parents will be able to meet with the school counselor regarding course
selections during Parent Teacher Conference Night. Due to limited space,
parents must call or email to schedule an appointment for this night. If
appointments fill up, parents will be able to make appointments at a different
time. (Conferences are completely optional.)
February 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd.
• Students will have designated times to meet with the counselors and return
course selection forms and four-year plans. Parents and students must sign the
forms.
• Students will have appointment cards with designated time and date.
February 22nd
• Preview Night at the Academy from 5-7pm
If a student wishes to take an honors class, they must have a teacher recommendation.
In order to receive a teacher recommendation, students need to have a 90 or above in
the related class. Students are required to take the honors selection form to their
teacher to sign. Students will need recommendations for the following courses:
1. STEM 1 Honors (recommendation from Math or Science teacher)
2. LA Honors (LA teachers)
3. Algebra 1 Honors / Geometry Honors (Math teacher/Algebra 1 teacher)
4. Biology Honors (Physical Science teacher)
5. Art 1 honors (Art teacher)
6. Art II honors (Art teacher)
7. World History and Geography Honors (Social Studies teacher)
8. Facing History and Ourselves Honors (Social Studies teacher)-This class falls under
Humanities and Liberal Arts Focus Path
9. French 1 Honors; German 1 Honors; Spanish 1 Honors (LA teacher)
10. Spanish 2 (Spanish 1 teacher)

Due 2/1

1. Paul measures the mass of baking soda and vinegar before they are mixed in an experiment. The mass total is 56 grams.  Then, he combines the two and a chemical reaction occurs.  When he measures the mass of the new product it is only 22 grams, what may have happened to the rest?

2. Chris measures the mass of calcium and hydroxide before they are mixed in an experiment. The mass total is 56 grams.  Then, he combines the two and a chemical reaction occurs.  When he measures the mass of the one of the new products (HCa) it is only 22 grams, what is the mass of the Oxygen?

3. An unknown substance is put through a series of tests to determine its pH level. When tested with litmus paper, the paper doesn’t change color.  It doesn’t appear to produce any ions when mixed with water.  What is the pH level of the substance?

4. Callie believes that if she mixes an acid and a base it will explode. Write an explanation with a sample word equation of what really happens when acids and bases are mixed.

5. What are the two factors that affect the gravitational pull between objects?

6. Ariah always complains that her book bag is too heavy. In order to prove her point, what tool could Ariah use?

7. What must be balanced for orbits to be stable?

8. How many Calcium atoms are involved in the following reaction?

C6H12Ca2 + 2Ca2 --> 6CaH2 + 6CO2 + energy

Due 1/31

1. What is the purpose of the rod in an electromagnet?
2. If I place a piece of metal on a magnet, where is it most likely to stick?
3. What is similar about the shapes of the magnetic fields of Earth, a bar magnet, and an electromagnet?
4. Why does the north pole of a magnet (found in a compass) point to the North pole of Earth? Give a full explanation.
5. What are three ways to reduce the amount of electricity created by an electric generator?
6. Do all objects have gravity?
7. Josh and Tierra break up and walk away from each other, what happens to the amount of gravity between them?
8. Which has more gravity if they are both put into the same size container, 100 grams of air or 100 grams of metal?
9. Hailey takes her My Little Pony collection to Mars. The collection has a total mass of 15kg on Earth.  What will the mass of the collection be on Mars?  Mars has 0.38 the gravity of Earth.
10. Ever year people set New Year resolutions to lose weight. Ethan had the great idea of going to the moon to lose weight.  Will Ethan’s plan work?  Explain using evidence from your notes.
11. Ever year people set New Year resolutions to get into a smaller pant size. Ethan had the great idea of going to the moon to be able to fit into smaller pants.  Will Ethan’s plan work?  Explain using evidence from your notes.
12. Why does the moon orbit Earth instead of the sun, which is 330,000 more massive than the Earth?
13. If Saturn were to lose half of its mass, what would happen to its orbit around the sun?
14. Scientists have observed the moon accelerating in its orbit. What is happening to its orbit around Earth?
15. What two changes to the moon could occur that would cause it to crash into Earth?

Critical Thinking - Elem, Com, and Mix

1. Blood has many components, among which are red blood cells and white blood cells. Lab technicians will separate the parts of blood by spinning it in a centrifuge.  When blood has been spun, the more dense red blood cells are at the bottom of the tube and the white blood cells are at the top.  Based on this method of separation, is blood a mixture or compound?
2. Salt (NaCl) is a compound. In order to separate salt into the elements that make it up, what must occur?
3. What is a primary difference between a mixture and a compound?
4. Is Kool-Aid a mixture or compound?
5. When food coloring is added to water, it will change the color of the water without the need of mixing the water. Alayna says that a compound was formed, but Aidan says it is a mixture.  Who is correct? Explain.
6. In order to separate a compound, what must occur?
7. William pours baking soda into warm water. Within minutes the baking soda has completely dissolved in the water.  Was a mixture or compound created in this experiment?
8. JT read in a Scientific American magazine that you can separate the iron from the flakes of cereal in Frosted Flakes. All he has to do is crush the dry cereal with his spoon into a powder, then run a magnet over the crushed cereal.  Based on this method of separation, is cereal and iron a compound or mixture?
9. How many elements are found in salt (NaCl)?
10. What happens to the characteristics of an element when it joins with other elements to become a compound?
11. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless and a gas at room temperature. Oxygen is also colorless and a gas at room temperature.  Using this example, is it always true that elements have different characteristics than the compounds that they are found in?

Article - Composition of the Atmosphere

Composition of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere is concentrated at the earth’s surface and rapidly thins as you move upward, blending with space at roughly 100 miles above sea level. The atmosphere is actually very thin compared to the size of the earth, equivalent in thickness to a piece of paper laid over a beach ball.  However, it is responsible for keeping our earth habitable and for producing weather.

The atmosphere is composed of a mix of several different gases in differing amounts.  The permanent gases whose percentages do not change from day to day are nitrogen, oxygen and argon.  Nitrogen accounts for 78% of the atmosphere, oxygen 21% and argon 0.9%.  Gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and ozone are trace gases that account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere.  Water vapor is unique in that its concentration varies from 0-4% of the atmosphere depending on where you are and what time of the day it is.  In the cold, dry arctic regions water vapor usually accounts for less than 1% of the atmosphere, while in humid, tropical regions water vapor can account for almost 4% of the atmosphere.  Water vapor content is very important in predicting weather.

Greenhouse gases whose percentages vary daily, seasonally, and annually have physical and chemical properties which make them interact with solar radiation and infrared light (heat) given off from the earth to affect the energy balance of the globe.  This is why scientists are watching the observed increase in greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane carefully, because even though they are small in amount, they can strongly affect the global energy balance and temperature over time.

Article - Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

— McGraw-Hill Professional

Updated on Aug 28, 2011

Elements

Over time, scientists discovered that some matter is composed of pure chemicals. Pure substances are homogeneous and have certain unchanging chemical compositions. For example, a pure sample of highly condensed carbon, diamond, will always have the same crystalline structure. The repeating structural unit of diamond consists of eight atoms in cubic shapes. Using this cubic form and its highly symmetrical arrangement of atoms, diamond crystals form several different shapes. We will discuss this in more detail in Chapter 15. This cubic form and its light reflectivity make diamond one of the most desired substances on Earth.

Chemicals that have the same type of matter all through the sample are said to be pure elements. Oxygen, potassium, mercury, and nickel are pure elements.

During his research in 1789, Antoine Lavoisier defined an element as a substance that could not be decomposed by a chemical reaction into simpler substances. Lavoisier identified 33 elements that he thought were pure and indivisible. Of those 33, 20 of the 109 elements currently identified, are still considered pure elements.

An element is made up of a pure sample with all of the same kinds of atoms and cannot be further separated into simpler elements.

Mixtures

Mixtures can be separated into two or more substances manually. No chemical reaction is needed. In nature, salt water can be separated into its components of water and salt by allowing the water to evaporate. Mixtures are found in two forms: heterogeneous and homogeneous.

A heterogeneous mixture is one with physically separate parts that have different properties. An easy example is salt and pepper. A heterogeneous mixture has separate phases. A phase represents the number of different homogeneous materials in a sample. Salt is all one phase and pepper is one phase. They do not have a wide variety of characteristics, but are physically separate.

A homogeneous solution has one phase (liquid) but may have more than one component within the sample. Again, salt water is an example of a homogeneous mixture. It is the same throughout, but has two parts: water and salt. Figure 3.3 compares matter and its different parts.

Fig. 3.3. Matter can be further broken down into different divisions.

Compounds

Pure chemicals that can be broken down into simpler chemicals are known as compounds. Commonly, chemical compounds are made up of two elements in set proportions to each other. Water provides an easy example of a compound. It is composed of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. There are always two parts of hydrogen to one part oxygen in every molecule of water. If the water sample is from the sea or polluted, there may be other chemicals added, but basic water always has the same proportion of hydrogen to oxygen by mass.

Q3W4 (Jan 29- Feb 2)

Please remember that all plans are subject to change but here is a quick look at the week:
Monday: TC Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures. Students will also identify elements and compounds. Close read on the Atmosphere and create notes.
Tuesday: Critical thinking on elements, compounds, and mixtures.
Wednesday: TC Atmosphere (unless students decide to do Tuesday) and Quiz over Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures.
Thursday: Review Day
Friday: Mid Quarter cumulative test

***Homework will be given nightly (except Monday) to help begin reviewing***

0807.9.3 Classify common substances as elements or compounds based on their symbols or formulas.
0807.9.4 Differentiate between a mixture and a compound.
--> Describe how the characteristics of a compound are different than the characteristics of their component parts.
08079.5 Describe the chemical makeup of the atmosphere.
--> Apply the chemical properties of the atmosphere to illustrate a mixture of gases.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Classify substances as elements or compounds based on a symbol (i.e. Ne, NaCl).
2. Define mixture and compound.  Using that definition, classify common substances as a compound or mixture.
3.  Describe ways to separate compounds and mixtures.
4. Understand that the properties of elements change when chemically combined with another element to form a compound.
5.Identify the two main elements in the air and their percentages.  Translate that data into a pie graph.  Recognize the atmosphere as a mixture of gases.
6. Define and give examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

Q3W3 (Jan 22-26)

Good afternoon! Hopefully everyone has rested over the very long snow break! We are so happy to be back at school today  With so many days missed, we are going to be working extra hard over the next week to play catch up (if needed,at this point we feel our pacing is still spot on) and want to make sure you (as well as your child) are aware of what is going on in class! Our plans our a little off but we build in a couple of review weeks in our pacing guide each quarter in the event that we need more reinforcement in areas. Students were scheduled to take the Law of Conservation of Mass quiz on Friday 1/12 so that will be on Monday January 22.  There are critical thinking questions on my website that we went over in class today to help students prepare.

Here is a look at the week:
Monday- Law of Conservation of Mass quiz (this includes balancing equations) (identifying the types of chemical reactions will be an extra credit opportunity)
Tuesday- Go over quiz and compare elements and compounds (create notes)
Wednesday- Interactive Reader on Compounds and Mixtures (if this is not completed in class, it should be finished at home)
Thursday- Create TC on elements, compounds, and mixtures
Friday- Guidance

0807.9.3 Classify common substances as elements or compounds based on their symbols or formulas.
0807.9.4 Differentiate between a mixture and a compound.
--> Describe how the characteristics of a compound are different than the characteristics of their component parts.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Classify substances as elements or compounds based on a symbol (i.e. Ne, NaCl).
2. Define mixture and compound.  Using that definition, classify common substances as a compound or mixture.
3.  Describe ways to separate compounds and mixtures.
4. Understand that the properties of elements change when chemically combined with another element to form a compound.

Law of Conservation of Mass Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking – Law of Conservation of Mass

1. Faith measures the mass of baking soda and vinegar before they are mixed in an experiment. The mass total is 40 grams.  Then, she combines the two and a chemical reaction occurs.  When she measures the mass of the new product it is only 36 grams.  What happened to the other 4 grams?
2. Examine the following chemical equation.

Zn + 2HCl  --> ZnCl2 + ___H

How many Hydrogen (H) atoms must be present in the second product that

is formed?

1. Bryce measures the mass of the products from a chemical reaction. The product has a mass of 27grams.  Assuming that the chemical reaction did not produce a gas, what was the mass of the reactants of the chemical reaction?
2. Sugar and oxygen combine to yield carbon dioxide, water, and energy during cellular respiration. What are the reactants in cellular respiration?
3. If there are 17 sodium atoms on the reactant side of a chemical equation, how many sodium atoms will be in the products?
4. In the equation shown, 46 grams of sodium (Na) react with 36 grams of water (H2O).

2Na + 2H2O  --> 2NaOH + H2

If 2 grams of hydrogen gas (H2) is produced by this reaction, what is the

mass of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) produced?

1. Nicolo has two identical beakers with a mass of 20 grams each. He pours a different liquid reactant into each beaker.  The total mass of the two beakers with the reactants is 50 grams.  Next, he combines the two reactants into one of the beakers.  A chemical reaction produces a product.  If all of the reactants are consumed and no gases are produced, what is the total mass of the product and one beaker?
2. How many Oxygen atoms are involved in the following reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -->  6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

1. Boiling water physically changes water from a liquid to a gas. 20 grams of water is boiled.  If all of the water vapor were captured, what would the mass of the water vapor be?
2. Zach tells Elan that scientist should not balance chemical equations since the products in a chemical reaction will always have some different properties. Is Zach accurate in his statement?